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Pregnancy in Dogs

Bruce W. Christensen, DVM, MS, DACT, Kokopelli Assisted Reproductive Services, Woodland, California


|August 2018|Peer Reviewed

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Pregnancy in Dogs
Clinician's Brief
Clinician's Brief


Breeding should be timed and managed using vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy, and progesterone to determine luteinizing hormone surge, ovulation date, fertile period, and estimated whelping date. Insemination options include:

  • Fresh semen (natural mating, vaginal AI, TCI)
  • Chilled/shipped semen (vaginal AI, TCI)
  • Frozen semen (TCI, surgical AI)
*Although negative predictive value of vaginal cytology within the first 24 hours of mating has been reported to be as great as the positive predictive value,1 the possibility of a false negative still warrants confirming pregnancy later. Therefore, the value of performing vaginal cytology is questionable. **Must administer within 1 to 2 days of mating. Use caution with timing and dose. Adverse effects include aplastic anemia and pyometra.

AI = artificial insemination, TCI = transcervical insemination


For global readers, a calculator to convert laboratory values, dosages, and other measurements to SI units can be found here.

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