Small Animal Clinical Nutrition: Renal Module

Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 6th Edition: Renal Disease

Explore CKD and its management in the following digital chapter of the Small Animal Clinical Nutrition (SACN) 6th edition provided by the Mark Morris Institute (MMI). This content is completely free, and includes access to specific articles from top experts, written for Clinician's Brief and relevant to the provided chapters of SACN. Test your knowledge after reading with a handy RACE-approved quiz.

Summary of Chapter

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in both dogs and cats. Studies have shown a prevalence of up to 25% in dogs presenting to referral hospitals1-3 and approximately 30% to 40% of cats over 10 years of age.4 

There are many causes of chronic kidney disease, including progression of juvenile or familial nephropathies and acquired diseases such as neoplastic and immune-mediated disorders, various infections, and inflammation.

Regardless of the underlying cause, renal injury leads to progressive nephron loss and reductions in glomerular filtration, ultimately leading to uremia and even death. A thorough diagnostic evaluation is recommended for any patient with suspected kidney disease and should include, at minimum, baseline blood work (eg, CBC, serum chemistry panel), blood pressure measurement, urinalysis, and diagnostic imaging. Quantitative measurement of proteinuria as well as renal endocrine function testing (eg, PTH and vitamin D levels) may also be considered.

CKD management involves a multimodal approach with a focus on proper nutrition. Nutritional management should be aimed at controlling clinical signs of uremia, minimizing disturbances in electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base balance, and modifying progression of CKD.5

References

TEST YOURSELF

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Multiple Choice Questions
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Quiz: Chronic Kidney Disease

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1/10  Questions
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IRIS substaging for chronic kidney disease includes measurement of which two parameters?

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Quiz: Chronic Kidney Disease
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Serum BUN and creatinine do not increase until approximately what percentage of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is lost?

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Quiz: Chronic Kidney Disease
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Reduced excretion of which of the following can result in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism?

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Abnormal lipid metabolism in patients with CKD includes which of the following changes?

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Which therapeutic for CKD is the only treatment that has been shown in randomized control studies to prolong survival time and improve quality of life in dogs and cats with CKD?

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How may dietary protein restriction be beneficial for patients with CKD?

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Dietary restriction of which two electrolytes is recommended for patients with CKD?

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What are the potential results of chronic hypokalemia in patients with CKD?

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What is the mechanism(s) by which increased dietary omega-3 fatty acids contribute to renal protection?

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Which of the following statements is false?

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Quiz: Chronic Kidney Disease

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RELATED ARTICLES

Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats with Hyperthyroidism

Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats with Hyperthyroidism

A factor determining how to treat cats with concurrent CKD and hyperthyroidism is when and if azotemia occurs.

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Laboratory Evaluation in Dogs & Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease

Laboratory Evaluation in Dogs & Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease

Explore how to best use these 4 indicators to facilitate early diagnosis and enhance therapy for CKD.

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